Robert Matthews Coin Authentication

Science and counterfeit coins, a selected bibliography

This selective list of English language references is intended to provide information on the scientific examination of counterfeit coins. Ideally it should only refer to articles involving the examinations of counterfeit coins. However there is a paucity of published articles and research in this field. Due to this the list also contains key references to advances in scientific technique that were subsequently used in counterfeit coin examinations and to references that are available on the web.

The references listed are classified according to the year in which they were published. They can further be sub-divided according to four main categories. These are: Classical techniques known and used prior to 1939; spectroscopic techniques, which although the principles of some may have been known before 1939 required the post war advances in electronics to be useful; post second world war Nuclear techniques that often give whole sample analysis; and finally Miscellaneous techniques not covered by the previous three categories.

These references have been obtained from a number of sources including: Analytical Abstracts, AATA Online, the ANS Library Catalogue, my own unstructured reading and my good friend Google. I have read all the abstracts of these articles. I have read the whole article where the reference number is marked with an asterick,*, and confirmed its relevance. Please contact me if you know of a suitable article which I have not listed or if one of the links does not function.

The list was first issued on 28th October 2004. Additional entry added 2nd November 2004

Ref. no.YearAuthor(s)TitleJournal or book
1*1945Caley, Earle R.Methods of distinguishing cast from struck coins Numismatic review, 2, no.4, pp 21-24
Link http://ancientcoins. ac/forgery/caley.html
2*1946Caley, Earle R.On the occurence of abnormally low weight and specific gravity in ancient coinsNumismatic Review, 2
Link http://www.ancients.info/modules.php?s=dbb6b5393742a600765749337d5a3772&name=Sections&sop=viewarticle&artid= 22
3*1949Caley, Earle R.Validity of the specific gravity method for the determination of the fineness of gold objectsOhio Journal of Science, 49, pp 73-82
4*1952Caley, Earle R.Estimation of the composition of ancient metal objects: utility of specific gravity measurementsAnalytical Chemistry, 24, pp 676-681
51956Thompson, F.C.The use of the microscope in numismatic studies Numismatic Chronicle, 16, pp 329-338
8*1958Forbes, J.S. & Dalladay, D.BMetallic impurities in the silver coinage trial plates (1279 to 1900)Journal of the Institute of Metals, vol. 87, pp. 55-58
101962Day, M.D. & Hollander, D.F.A simple method for the detection of forgeries by measurement of specific gravitySeaby's Coin and Medal Buletin No.533, pp 386-388
111963Fuld, George J.X-ray used to detect counterfeit U.S. gold dollars Coin World, 154, pp 72
12*1963Banks, M. & Hall, E.T.X-ray flourescence analysis in archaeology: the 'Milliprobe' Archaeometry, 6, pp 31-36
131963Hornblower, A.P.Some examples of work with the electron probe microanalyser Archaeometry, 6, pp 37-42
15*1964Caley, Earle R."Analysis of Ancient Metals" Book, Pergamon Press, 1964
16*1964Carter, Giles F.X-ray fluorescence analysis of Roman coins Analytical Chemistry, 36, no. 7, pp 1264-1268
20*1970Hughes, M.J. & Oddy, W.A.A reappraisal of the specific gravity method for the analysis of gold alloysArchaeometry, 12, pp 1-11
22*1972Oddy, W.A. & Schweizer, F.A comparative analysis of some gold coins In RNS Special Publication no. 8, "Methods of Chemical and Metallurgical Investigation of Ancient Coinage", pp 171-182
23*1972Meyers, PieterActivation analysis methods applied to coins: a review In RNS Special Publication no. 8, "Methods of Chemcial and Metallurgical Investigation of Ancient Coinage", pp 183-193
24*1972Brill, Robert & Shields, William R.Lead isotopes in ancient coins In RNS Special Publication no. 8, "Methods of Chemical and Metallurgical Investigation of Ancient Coinage", pp 279-303
25*1972Green, L. & Moon, J.R.A microscopic examination of an alleged 1933 pennyJournal of Microscopy, 96, no. 3, pp. 381-384
281974Terry, K.W. & Laeter, J.R.X-ray diffraction analysis of grain size as a method of detection of reproductions among seventeenth-century Spanish silver reales Numismatic Chronicle, 7th series, no. 14, pp. 198-202
311977King, C.The alloy content of folles and imitations from the Woodeaton HoardPACT 1, pp. 86-100
331978Metcalf, D.M.Another modern forgery of a sceat British Numismatic Journal, 48, pp. 107
36*1979Andrasko, J.; Kylsaeter, P.; Maehly, A.C. & Knuuttila, M. Analysis of counterfeit gold coins by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction Scanning Electron Microscopy, 1, pp. 455-458 plus 410
381980Archibald, M.M.The Queenhithe hoard of late 15th century forgeries British Numismatic Journal, 50, pp. 61-66
391980Oddy, W.A. & Archibald, M.M.The technique of some forged medieval silver pennies In book, "Scientific Studies in Numismatics", British Museum occasional papers, 18, pp. 81-90
40*1980Cline Love, L.J.; Soto, Luis & Reagor, B.T. Surface studies of ancient gold coins and modern copies by x-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy and scanning Auger spectroscopyApplied Spectroscopy, 34, no. 2, pp. 131-139
421981MacLeod, I.D. & Ritchie, I.M.Detection of debasement in (forged) silver coins by means of corrosion potential measurements Archaeometry, 23, no. 1, pp. 65-70
451982MacLeod, Ian D.A study of some forged silver coins recovered from 17th century and 19th century shipwrecksChemistry in Australia, 49, no. 8, pp. 317-320
48 1983Thakur, UpendraProblems of forgery in Indian numismatics The Journal of the Numismatic Society of India, 45, no. 1-2, pp. 1-12
501984McLeod, I.D.A genuine sixteen century forged coin The Bulletin of the Australian Institute for Maritime Archaeology, 8, no. 2, pp. 1-9
51*1984Wharton, GlennTechnical examination of renaissance medals the use of Laue back reflection x-ray diffraction to identify electroformed reproductions JAIC, 23, no. 2, article 2, pp. 88-100
Link http://aic.stanford.edu/jaic/articles/jaic23-02-002.html
551985Mitchiner, M.B. & Skinner, A.Contemporary forgeries of English silver coins and their chemical compositions: Henry III to William IIINumismatic Chronicle, 145, pp. 209-236
56*1985De Jesus, A.S.M.Authentication of gold products by nuclear methods: a feasibility study on gold coins and jewelryGold Bulletin, 18, pp132-139
571986Mitchiner, M.B. & Skinner, A.Contemporary forgeries of late seventeenth-century English tin coins: the implications for the study of leaden tokens Numismatic Chronicle, 146, pp 178-184
61*1993Oddy, W.A. & Cowell, M.R.The technology of gilded coin forgeriesRNS Special Publication No. 24, Metallurgy in Numismatics, Vol. 3, pp 199-221 + plates
62*1993La Niece, SusanThe technology of silver-plated forgeries RNS Special Publication No. 24, Metallurgy in Numismatics, Vol. 3, pp 227-236 + plates
661997Saryan, Levon A.Chemical analyses of counterfeit Cilician Armenian coinsThe Celator, 11, no. 7, pp. 14-19
671997Hida, Minemasa; Mitsui, Toshiyuki & Minami, Yukio Forensic investigation of counterfeit coins Forensic Science International, Issues 1-2, pp. 21-26
Link to abstract http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T6W-3W0G0FT-R&_coverDate= 09%2F19%2F1997&_alid= 213028126&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_qd=1&_cdi=5041&_sort=d&view=c&_acct= C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion= 0&_userid=10&md5=44a66db72f64366718e5581be6d724d0
70*1998Grigorova, B.; Anderson, S.; de Bruyn, J.; Smith, W.; Strulpner, K. & Barzev, A. The AARL gold fingerprinting technologyGold Bulletin, 31(1), pp 26-29
Link http://www.gold.org/discover/sci_indu/GBull/1998_1/Aarl.pdf
71*1998Northover, J.P.Analysis in the electron microprobe and scanning electron microscope"Metallurgy in Numismatics, volume 4", RNS Special Publication No.30, pp.94-113
72*1998La Niece, SusanMetallography in numismatics "Metallurgy in Numismatics, volume 4", RNS Special Publication No.30, pp. 114-133
73*1998Stiegel, Mary F.X-ray diffraction in numismatics: a review "Metallurgy in Numismatics, volume 4", RNS Special Publication No.30, pp. 405-424
76*1999Bakrat, E.H. & Sarhell, A.Analysis of Umayyad Islamic silver coins (Dirhams) by using instrumental neutron activation analysisNuclear Science and Techniques, vol 10, no. 1, (republish on-line in "The on-line journal of the Islamic Coins Group" 2002)
Link http://islamiccoinsgroup.50g.com/assikka4/Umayyadanalysis.htm
79*2000Uzonyi, I.; Bugoi, R.; Sasianu, A.; Kiss, A.Z.; Constantinescu, B. & Torbagyi, M.Characterization of Dyrrhachium silver coins by micro-PIXE method Nuclear Instruments and Method in Physics Research B, 161-163, pp. 748-752
Link http://hbar.phys. msu.su/gorm/dating/coins2.pdf
802000Constantinescu, B.; Cojocaru, V.; Bugoi, R. & Sasianu, A. Material analysis in archaeometrical studies at Bucharest particle accelerators Proceedings of EPAC 2000, Vienna, pp2574-2576
Link http://accelconf.web.cern.ch/accelconf/e00/PAPERS/WEP6B14.pdf
812001Hida, Minemasa; Sato, Hiroyasu; Sugawara, Hiroshi & Mitsui, Toshiyuki Classification of counterfeit coins using multivariate analysis with x-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence methodsForensic Science International, 115(1-2), pp. 129-134
Link to abstract http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi= B6T6W-41H3KX1-N&_coverDate=01%2F01%2F2001&_alid=213027939&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_qd= 1&_cdi=5041&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5= cc860fded1a4a712e7ef9074f2a0ca11
822001Reiff, F.; Bartels, M.; Gastel, M. & Ortner, H.M. Investigation of contemporary gilded forgeries of ancient coinsFreenius J. Anal. Chem, 371(8), pp1146-1153
85*2002Meng, Hsien-Hui; Cheng, Kung-Chi & Chen, Hu-Sheng A systematic procedure for the forensic examination of questioned coins with a face value of fifty New Taiwan DollarsForensic Science Journal (Taiwan), 1, pp. 39-46
Link http://www.cpu.edu.tw/~fsjournal/content/vol1.no.1/p5(39-46).pdf
88*2003Constantin, Ciortea et al Development of analysis methodology using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) as a complementary method to determine some heavy metalsIDRANAP Report WP4 51-03/2003, pp. 1-11
Link http://idranap.nipne.ro/pdf/wp04-51-03.pdf
89*2003Kochelmann, W.; Kierfel, A.; Linke, R.; Schreiner, M.; Traum, R.; Pantos, E.; Garner, R. & Prag A.J.W.Genuine or fake? Neutron diffraction for non-destructive testing of museum objectsISIS 2003
Link http://srs.dl.ac.uk/arch/reports/isis-2003-h15.pdf
90*2003Holabird, F.N.; Evans, R.D. & Fitch D.C. Western precious metal ingots: the good, the bad and the uglyThe Numismatist, August 2003
Link http://www.money.org/publications/IngotPaperFinal.pdf
912003Linke, R; Schreiner, M.; Demortier, G. & Alram, M. The determination of the provenance of medieval silver coins: potential and limitations of x-ray analysis using photons, electrons or protonsX-ray Spectrometry, 32, pp. 373-380
Link to abstract http://www.fundp.ac.be/recherche/publications/fr/46098.html
92*2003Rössiger, Volker & Nensel, BernhardNon-destructive analysis of gold alloys using energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis Gold Bulletin, 36, no.4, pp. 125-137
Link http://www.gold.org/discover/sci_indu/GBull/2003_4/Nensel.pdf
932003Junk, S.A & Pernicka, E.An assessment of Osmium isotope ratios as a new tool to determine the provenance of gold with platinum-group metal inclusions Archaeometry, 45, issue 2, pp. 313-331
Link to abstract http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/abstract.asp?ref= 0003-813X&vid=45&iid=2&aid=110&s=&site=1
94*2003Ponting, M.; Evans, J.A. & Pashley, V Fingerprinting of Roman mints using laser-ablation MC-ICP-MS lead isotope analysis Archaeometry, 45, no. 4, pp. 591-577
Link to abstract http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bpl/arch/2003/00000045/00000004/art00005
972004Kraft, Gunther; Flege, Stefan; Reiff, Fritz & Ortner, Hugo M. Investigation of contemporary forgeries of ancient silver coins Microchimica Acta, 145, no.s 1-4, pp. 87-90
Link to abstract http://springerlink.metapress.com/app/home/contribution.asp?wasp= 46ghvpmrym23d0xtrlrl&referrer=parent&backto=issue,14,46;journal,9,37;linkingpublicationresults,1:103392,1
98*2004Raub, Chistoph J.The minting of platinum roubles Part 1: history and current investigationsPlatium Metals Review, 48, issue 2, pp. 66-69
Link http://www.platinummetalsreview.com/dynamic/article/view/ 48-2-66-69
99*2004Lupton, David F. The minting of platinum roubles Part II: the platinum roubles of Heraeus Platinum Metals Review, 48, 2, pp. 72-78
Link http://www.platinummetalsreview.com/dynamic/article/view/48-2-72-78
1002004Xie, Yanxia; Lutterotti, L.; Wenk, H.R. & Kovacs, F. Texture analysis of ancient coins with TOF neutron diffraction Journal of Material Science, 39, 10, pp. 3329-3337
Link to abstract http://ipsapp007.kluweronline.com/IPS/content/ext/x/J/4861/I/178/A/7/abstract.htm
101*2004Willey, David B. & Pratt, Allin S. The minting of platinum roubles Part III: the platinum roubles of Johnson Matthey Platinum Metals Review, 48, 3, pp. 134-138
Link http://www.platinummetalsreview.com/dynamic/article/view/48-3-134-138
102*2004Mandal, A.C.; Santra, S.; Mitra, D.; Sarkar, M. & Bhattacharya, D. EDXRF as a routine tool for numismatic studiesCurrent Science, 85, no. 2, pp.134-135
Link http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/jul252003/134.pdf
103*2004Olariu, AgataStudy by the method of physics of some medieval coinsJournal not known (Cornell University e-print archive, arXiv)
Link http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/nucl-ex/pdf/9908/9908021.pdf
104*2004Paprotta, TobiasInvestigation of modified German 20th century coinage: using non-destructive synchroton radiation techniquesPresentation slides of summer program Hasylab
Link http://www.desy.de/f/students/studsess2004/paprotta.pdf

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