<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN"> <html> <head> <title>Counterfeit Coin Newsletter No.9</title> <meta http-equivalent="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=iso-0059-1"> <meta name="Author" content="Robert Matthews"> <meta name="keywords" contents="coins, counterfeit, forged, fake, euro, UK bridge type one-pound, USA, silver dollars, magnetic, crowns, Hoxne hoard, Russia, Russian, gold, gold plated, platinum, sovereign, common classes, ducat, Prokopov NGC coin holder"> <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="mystyles.css"> <style> <!-- a.links{ color: DarkBlue; text-decoration: none; width: 1in; border: thick DarkGray; border-style: outset; background-color: Gainsboro; padding: 3pt; margin-top: 20px; margin-right: 20px; margin-bottom: 20px; margin-left: 20px; font-size: 14pt; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;} body{ color: DarkBlue; background-color: Gainsboro; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12pt; text-align: justify; margin: 20pt;} .title1{ font-style: normal; font-weight: 700; font-size: 20pt; padding: 1pt; margin: 20pt; border: 0; width: 20%;} .title2{ font-style: italic; font-weight: 700; font-size: 20pt; padding: 1pt; margin: 20pt; border: 0; width: 75%;} .title3{ font-style: normal; font-weight: 700; font-size: 14pt;} .left{ float: left; margin: 15pt} --> </style> </head> <body> <table width=97% border="0" cellpadding="5" style="text-align:justify"> <tr> <th align="center" width="20%" height=75 style="margin-right: 10px; font-style:italic; font-weight:bold;font-size:20px"> COUNTERFEIT COIN NEWSLETTER</th><th width=1px></th> <th align="center" width="75%" style="font-size:30px">Robert Matthews Coin Authentication </th></tr> </table> <table width=97% border="0" cellpadding="5" style="text-align:justify"> <tr> <td width=20% style="line-height:1em"> <a href="index.html" style="width: 15mm; text-decoration: none; border: thick DarkGray; border-style: outset; background-color: Gainsboro; padding: 3pt; margin-top: 20px; margin-right: 20px; margin-bottom: 20px; margin-left: 60px; font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; text-align:center;">Home</a></td> <td width=20% style="line-height:1em"> <a href="coininfo.html" style="width: 15mm; text-decoration: none; border: thick DarkGray; border-style: outset; background-color: Gainsboro; padding: 3pt; margin-top: 20px; margin-right: 20px; margin-bottom: 20px; margin-left: 20px; font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; text-align:center;">Coin&nbsp;Information</a> </td> <td width=20% style="line-height:1em"> <a href="links.html" style="width: 15mm; text-decoration: none; border: thick DarkGray; border-style: outset; background-color: Gainsboro; padding: 3pt; margin-top: 20px; margin-right: 20px; margin-bottom: 20px; margin-left: 60px; font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; text-align:center;">Links</a> </td> <td width=20% style="line-height:1em"> <a href="mailto:coinauthentication@msn.com" style="width: 15mm; text-decoration: none; border: thick DarkGray; border-style: outset; background-color: Gainsboro; padding: 3pt; margin-top: 20px; margin-right: 20px; margin-bottom: 20px; margin-left: 20px; font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; text-align:center;">Contact&nbsp;Webmaster</a> </td></tr> </table> <table width=97% border="0" cellpadding="5" style="text-align:justify"> <tr> <td width=20% style="line-height:1em"></td><td width=1px></td><td> <span style="text-align:right"><p>No. 9 December 2007</p></span> </td> </tr> </table> <table width=97% border="0" cellpadding="5" style="text-align:justify"> <tr> <td style="font-weight:bold;font-size:18px;text-align:center"><a name="contents">CONTENTS</a> <div style="font-weight: 400; font-family: Arial, Verdana, san serif;font-size: 14px;"> <p><a href="#top">EDITORIAL</a></p> <br /><span style="font-weight:700">NEWS</span> <p><a href="#magcrown">Investigating how some magnetic, counterfeit dollars and crowns are made</a></p> <p><a href="#1cft">Man gaoled for counterfeiting one-pound coins</a></p> <p><a href="#russia">Counterfeit Russian Gold Coins</a></p> <p><a href="#euro">Euro counterfeit coins</a></p> <p><span style="font-weight:700">COUNTERFEITING SNIPPETS FROM AROUND THE WORLD</span></p> <p><a href="#circul">Circulation coin</a> <br /></p> <p><a href="#collect">Collector coin</a> <br /></p> <br /><span style="font-weight:700"><a href="#on-line">ON-LINE RESOURCES</a></span> <p>Sites dealing with USA silver dollars</p> <br /><span style="font-weight:700"><a href="#inprint">IN PRINT</a></span> <p>A False Merchant Countermark, Forgery or Fake?</p> <p>Coin Forgeries and Replicas 2006</p> <p><a href="#hoxne">"The Late Roman Gold and Silver Coins from the Hoxne Treasure"</a></p> </div> </td> <td width=1px></td><td> <span style="font-weight:bold;font-size:18px;text-align:justify"><a name="top"> EDITORIAL</a></span> <div style="font-weight: 400; font-type: Arial, Verdana, san serif; font-size: 14px;"> <p>Welcome</p> <p>This edition of the Newsletter is the usual mix of items that have caught the editor's eye over the last six months. It includes news on magnetic, crown-size counterfeits; the gaoling of a major source of UK one-pound coin counterfeits; Russian gold counterfeits and another update on euro counterfeiting. Also included are a review of on-line resources on silver dollars and the usual book and literature reviews.</p> <p> One of the editor's interests is in the history of counterfeiting. There are not many written sources in this area and he was interested to see a reference by Boon [see "In Print" later] to probably the first Western European written source. This is a tale, probably about a time one hundred years previous, told by 5th century BC ancient Greek writer, Herodotus. He has been traditionally known as the Father of History. Hopefully readers will enjoy this small nugget as much as the editor.</p> <p><span style="font-style:italic;">"There is a silly tale told, that Polycrates struck a quantity of the coin of his country in lead, and, coating it with gold gave it to the Lacedaemonians, who on receiving it took their departure." </span>from, page 251, "The Histories" by Herodotus, translated by George Rawlinson, Everyman's Library, London 1997 </p> </div> </td></tr> <tr> <td width=20% style="line-height:1em"> <p><a href="images/1898crowncftobv.jpg"> <img src="images/thumb1898crowncft1.jpg" width=300 height=265 align=center alt="A magnetic copy of the obverse of an 1898 British crown"></a></p> <p><a href="images/1898crowncftrev.jpg"> <img src="images/thumb1898crowncftrev.jpg" width=300 height=296 align=center alt="A magnetic copy of the reverse an 1898 British crown"></a></p> <div style="font-weight: 400; font-family: Arial, Verdana, san serif; font-size: 12px;"> <p>A magnetic copy of an 1898 British crown coin, bought as a copy on eBay. <br />[Click on an image to see a larger photograph]</p></div> </td><td width=1px></td><td> <span style="font-weight:bold;font-size:18px;text-align:left"> NEWS</span> <p><span style="font-weight: 700; font-size:16px;text-align:center;"><a name="magcrown"> Investigating how some magnetic, counterfeit dollars and crowns are made</a></span></p> <div style="font-weight: 400; font-family: Arial, Verdana, san serif; font-size: 14px;"> <p>In the middle of this year, 2007, a series of magnetic copies of coins were offered for sale on eBay. This same seller was still selling copies of this type whilst this note was being written in December 2007. Although they were properly categorised as copies they were not marked in any way and so would not be able to be sold legally in the USA. They were offer for sale by a seller from Germany who each time described them, as having been bought by mistake at a car boot sale. It seems rather careless to buy so many fake coins from one source. In just one week nineteen different denomination of coin were offered for sale by the same source, from at least nine different countries. Included were copies of; eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth century USA silver dollars and French, German, Philippine, Australian and British coins. The editor bought one of these coins, a copy of an 1898 British crown and examined it for evidence about its composition, method of manufacture etc.</p> <table border="1" cellpadding="10" style="text-align: center"> <tr> <th style"=font-weight:bold">Obverse</th> <th style"=font-weight:bold">Reverse</th> <th style"=font-weight:bold">Edge</th> <th style"=font-weight:bold">Weight</th> <th style"=font-weight:bold">Diameter</th> <th style"=font-weight:bold">Edge Thickness</th> <th>Alignment</th> </tr> <tr><td>"Old Head" effigy of Queen Victoria</td> <td>St. George fighting the Dragon</td> <td>Milled</td> <td>19.015g</td> <td>N/S 37.96mm <br />E/W 37.99mm</td> <td>2.47-2.55mm</td> <td>&#8593;&#8593;</td> </tr> </table> <p>The crown was strongly magnetic indicating an iron based material rather than a nickel alloy. It had the white colour typical of silver alloys. The relative density determined for the coin was 7.88 g/cc compared with mild steel's relative density of 7.85 g/cc. The rim of the coin had the "rough" granular surface often found with poorly electro-plated metals. It was concluded that this crown was silver plated mild steel. It is possible that an intermediate metal had been plated between the steel and the silver but this was not established.</p> <p>The weight of the crown was over thirty percent less than expected of a crown. This is explained by the difference in density between mild steel [7.85 g/cc] and sterling silver [10.35 g/cc].</p> <p> When a coinage blank is struck by a coining die the metal alloy of the blank is expected to flow into all the depth of the design engraved into the die. In minting when this does not happen, either because the blank alloy is too hard or the press force is too low, the coin is described as not being "made". A typical example of this is the reverse of this crown, where there is a flat surface where the body of the dragon should be. This is probably due to the mild steel used being harder than sterling silver. This should not be confused with the high points of a coin's design being flat due to wear.</p> <p>Magnetic, counterfeit USA "silver" dollars have been found in the USA and attributed to Chinese manufacture*. This origin is certainly plausible for this group of counterfeits. We know Chinese circulation counterfeit coins have been produced by electroplating steel. Some scope of the size of the problem with counterfeits from China, not necessarily magnetic, can be seen by visiting a Hong Kong dealer's <a href="http://stores.ebay.com/ixwisdom-Store">eBay site</a> here again, the counterfeits are correctly identified as replicas. The relatively poor quality of these counterfeits means they need to be produced in quantity to make any significant profit. So collectors beware there are probably many more of this type of counterfeit about.</p> <p>[Sources: glyndragon eBay seller, * <a href="http://mywebpages.comcast.net/reidgold/draped_busts/chinese.html">Reid Goldsborough<a> and <a href="http://forum.treasurenet.com/index.php/topic,108624.msg785791.html#msg785791">TreasureNet</a>, ixwisdom_store eBay seller, editor]</p> <p>Return to <a href="#contents"> Contents</a>.</p> </div> </td></tr> <tr> <td width=20% style="line-height:1em"> <p><a href="1images/cft_ 2005_1_obv_P26.jpg"> <img src="1images/P26obv.jpg" width=183 height=160 align=center alt="Counterfeit 2005 1"></a></p> <div style="font-weight: 400; font-family: Arial, Verdana, san serif; font-size: 12px;"> <p>Obverse side of a nominal 2005 counterfeit one-pound coin. This counterfeit was found in the editor's change. There is no evidence to connect it to Marcus Glindon.</p> </div> <p><a href="1images/cft_2005_1_rev_P26.jpg"> <img src="1images/P26rev.jpg" width=170 height=170 align=center alt="Counterfeit 2005 1"></a></p> <div style="font-weight: 400; font-family: Arial, Verdana, san serif; font-size: 12px;"> <p>The reverse side of the nominal 2005 counterfeit one-pound coin. Click on the image to view a larger one.</p> </div> <p><a href="1images/cft_2005_1_edge_p26.jpg"> <img src="1images/P26edge1.jpg" width=173 height=88 align=center alt="Counterfeit 2005 1"></a></p> <div style="font-weight: 400; font-family: Arial, Verdana, san serif; font-size: 12px;"> <p>A section of the edge of the nominal 2005 counterfeit one-pound coin. Click on the image to view a larger one.</p> </div> </td><td width=1px></td><td> <p><span style="font-weight: 700; font-size:16px;"><a name="1cft"> Man gaoled for counterfeiting one-pound coins</a></span></p> <div style="font-weight: 400; font-family: Arial, Verdana, san serif; font-size: 14px;"> <p>In late December 2007, Marcus Glindon, 37, from Enfield, north London, was gaoled for 5 years for making over 14 million counterfeit one-pound blanks and coins. He made the blanks and coins over a seven-year period; within this time was a two-year period when he did not make any counterfeits. Of the estimated 14 million coin blanks made by Glindon, he struck an estimated two and a half million into coins. The remainder are believed to have been taken elsewhere for coining.</p> <p>Glindon was arrested after an anonymous tip off. Police raided his home and near by business premises, MG Engineering, in March 2007. As well as counterfeit blanks and coins, they found a blanking press, coining press and coinage dies.</p> <p>Glindon claimed he worked alone producing blanks and coins for two men he knew as Tom and John. They provided him with the materials required and removed the coins and blanks. At times he appeared to be making up to 10,000 to 12,000 coins per day and was paid about 2,000 per week by the men.</p> <p>Metropolitan Police Det. Con. Dan Roberts, was quoted by the BBC as saying: <span style="font-style:italic;">"As a result of a collaboration between the police, the Royal Mint and the counterfeit agency at the Serious Organised Crime Agency, we have disrupted a nationwide criminal network and put a substantial dent into the illegal production of 1 coins."</span> </p> <p>[Sources: <a href="http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/london/7144549.stm">BBC News</a>, look for the very informative film report available via this page, <a href="http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/news/article-23427750-details/%C2%A314million+counterfeiter+caught+after+seven-year+scam/article.do">"This is London"</a>, <a href="http://www.dailyrecord.co.uk/news/uk-world-news/2007/12/15/14million-fake-coins-maker-jailed-86908-20252953/">"Daily Record"</a>, editor] <span style="font-weight:700"><p>Comment</p></span> <p>Viewing the stills of Glindon's workshop in the BBC News film it is possible to identify: a blanking press with narrow strips of brass scissel [scissel is the strip remaining after blanking] and a hydraulic coining press. No equipment able to be used for the manufacture of coining dies could be seen in the film. The coining press is very similar to a type used in 2001 in an Essex-based illegal mint. In this illegal mint, blanks were delivered from elsewhere, cleaned, coined and packed for distribution.</p> <p>The estimated 14 million one-pound blanks and coins manufactured by Glindon are over half the total number of counterfeits previously estimated to be in circulation. The editor has no special knowledge as to the type of counterfeit produced by Glindon. However significant levels of brass counterfeit one-pound coins have been circulating since the mid 1990's. This is prior to the time that Glindon is reported to have started operation. It would appear that either there have been at least two organisations manufacturing these counterfeits or this organisation has a number of branches.</p> <p>Return to <a href="#contents"> Contents</a>.</p> </div></td></tr> <tr> <td width=20% style="line-height:1em"> <p><img src="images/1730Russian.jpg" width=300 height=144 align=center alt="The 1730 Russian ducat identified as a counterfeit in the Russian Numismatic Society Newsletter 13 (spring 2004)"></p> <div style="font-weight: 400; font-family: Arial, Verdana, san serif; font-size: 12px;"> <p>The 1730 Russian ducat identified as a counterfeit in the Russian Numismatic Society Newsletter 13 (spring 2004)</p> </div> </td><td width=1px></td><td> <p><span style="font-weight: 700; font-size:16px;"><a name="russia"> Counterfeit Russian Gold Coins</a></span></p> <div style="font-weight: 400; font-family: Arial, Verdana, san serif; font-size: 14px;"> <p>In October 2007 a 1730 Russian gold ducat was offered for sale on eBay. The seller stated that it was graded AU50 by ANACS. It was priced in a "Buy It Now" option at $33,300. On 12th October 2007 R.W. Julian* reported in the <a href="http://www.coinpeople.com/index.php?showtopic=16877">Coin People Russian Forum</a> that this coin <span style="font-style:italic;">"was published as a fake in the Russian Numismatic Society Newsletter 13 (spring 2004)."</span> It should be noted that a genuine coin of this type sold in a <a href="http://www.coinarchives.com/w/lotviewer.php?LotID=332591&AucID=239&Lot=6036">Gorny and Mosch</a> October 2006 auction for approximately $80,000. The eBay coin failed to sell and was re-listed at a "Buy It Now" price of $3,050. The auction was reported as successful but a subsequent unverified report stated the successful bidder withdrew. No record could be found in either the seller's or the successful bidder's eBay feedback concerning this coin. The editor was not able to contact the seller of this coin for his/her comments.</p> <p>On December 4th 2007 R.W.Julian published in the <a href="http://www.coinpeople.com/index.php?showtopic=17551">Coin People Russian Forum</a> a listing of all the counterfeit Russian coins published in the Journal of the Russian Numismatic Society. He has given the editor permission to reproduce this listing. Below is a table of the counterfeit gold coins listed. These have been combined with those reported in the "Bulletin on Counterfeits". The illustrated "Bulletin on Counterfeits" references can usually be found at <a href="http://www.forgerynetwork.com/default.aspx">ForgeryNetwork</a>. The "not illustrated" references are usually just listings with no details. Details for purchasing back orders for the Russian Numismatic Society's Journals can be found at their <a href="http://www.russiannumismaticsociety.org/">website</a>.</p> <table border="1" cellpadding="10" style="text-align: center"> <tr> <th style"=font-weight:bold">Denomination</th> <th style"=font-weight:bold">Date</th> <th style"=font-weight:bold">Russian Numismatic Society</th> <th style"=font-weight:bold">Bulletin on Counterfeits</th> </tr> <tr><td>Double Ducat</td> <td>1763</td> <td>-</td> <td>Vol. 4, No. 4, p. 109 <br />[Not illustrated]</td></tr> <tr><td>Ducat</td> <td>1680's</td> <td>Journal, Winter 2005-6</td> <td>-</td></tr> </table> <p>The table continues at the end of this newsletter to reach click on <a href="#russia1">Counterfeit Russian Coins</a>.</p> <p></p> <p></p> [*editor of the Journal of the Russian Numismatic Society, 2002 winner of the "Burnett Anderson Memorial Award for Excellence in Numismatic Writing" and author of numerous books and magazine articles on American and Russian coinage.] </div></td></tr> <tr> <td width=20% style="line-height:1em"> </td><td width=1px></td><td> <div style="font-weight: 400; font-family: Arial, Verdana, san serif; font-size: 14px;"> <p></p> <p>[Sources: Coin People Russian Forum, nashigluki on Ebay, CoinArchive, R.W.Julian] <p>Return to <a href="#contents"> Contents</a>.</p> </div></td></tr> <tr><td colspan=3> <div style="font-weight: 400; font-family: Arial, Verdana, san serif; font-size: 14px;"> <p><span style="font-weight: 700; font-family: Arial, Verdana, san serif; font-size: 14px;"><a name="euro">Euro counterfeit coins</a></span></p> <p>The annual European Commission <a href="http://ec.europa.eu/anti_fraud/reports/euro_cf/2006.pdf">report</a> on the protection of the euro coins was nominally published on 31 May 2007 but did not seem to surface for public consumption until September 2007. The increase in the numbers of counterfeits withdrawn from circulation was reported in the last newsletter. Perhaps the most interesting news is the number of common classes found. These represent the estimate, by the European Technical and Scientific Centre [ETSC], of the number of main counterfeit types circulating. Eighty counterfeit common classes have now been identified. <span style="font-style:italic;">"Out of these, just over a dozen are connected to the twelve clandestine mints that have been dismantled until now. The great majority of counterfeit types are still operation."</span> That is up to sixty-seven counterfeit manufacturing facilities are still issuing fake coins. The report concludes: <span style="font-style:italic;">"Thus, the vast majority of counterfeits continues to be produced, also including the major types of counterfeits;"</span>.</p> <p><a href="images/euroclasses.jpg"><img src="images/euroclasses.jpg" width=700 height=440 alt="Graph of the annual number of euro counterfeit coin classes identified"></a></p> <p>The report states: <span style="font-style:italic;">"One illegal mint was dismantled in 2006 in Italy. Since the introduction of the euro currency in 2002, twelve illegal mints have been dismantled: seven in Italy and one each in Portugal, Spain, Poland, Hungary and Bulgaria."</span> This probably does not include the police raid on the illegal mint in Spain in the early part of 2007 reported in the last edition of this newsletter. In a Belgium report on the record number of counterfeit euro coins found there in 2006 it was stated that: <span style="font-style:italic;">"Most of the coins are produced in Turkey and Italy"</span>. The only previous reports to implicate Turkey in counterfeiting the euro coins have originated in Greece. It would be interesting to know whether this Belgium report accurately reflect views in ETSC and Europol circles. </p> <p>[Sources: <a href="http://ec.europa.eu/anti_fraud/reports/euro_cf/2006.pdf"> European Commision report</a> May 2007; <a href="http://www.expatica.com/actual/article.asp?channel_id=3&story_id=45396">Expatica article</a> October 2007]</p> <p>Return to <a href="#contents"> Contents</a>.</p> </div></td></tr> <div style="font-weight: 400; font-family: Arial, Verdana, san serif;font-size: 14px;"> <tr><td colspan=3> <p><span style="font-weight: 700; font-size: 18px"> COUNTERFEITING SNIPPETS FROM AROUND THE WORLD</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 700; font-family: Arial, Verdana, san serif; font-size: 16px;"><a name="circul">Circulation coin</a></span></p> <div style="font-weight: 400; font-family: Arial, Verdana, san serif; font-size: 14px;"> <p></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 700; font-family: Arial, Verdana, san serif; font-size: 14px;"></span></p> <p></p> </div> </td></tr> </table> <p><span style="font-weight: 700; font-family: Arial, Verdana, san serif; font-size: 14px;">Counterfeit New Zealand one-dollar coin found</span></p> <div style="font-weight: 400; font-family: Arial, Verdana, san serif; font-size: 14px;"> <p>A counterfeit one-dollar coin was handed into Napier police in October 2007. The Dominion Post reports that, <span style="font-style: italic;"> "Local jeweller Brendan Maartens said the fake, dated 2003, appeared to be cast in brass. It has a diameter of 22mm, weighs 5.4 grams and is thinner and of a lighter colour."</span> than a genuine coin.<span style="font-style: italic;"> "A genuine New Zealand dollar is made of aluminium-bronze, has a diameter of 23 millimetres and weighs eight grams." </span>Its seems unlikely that a counterfeiter would only produce one counterfeit circulation coin but no further reports of similar coins have been seen.</p> <p>[Source: <a href="http://www.stuff.co.nz/4237477a10.html">The Dominion Post</a>]</p> <p><span style="font-weight: 700; font-family: Arial, Verdana, san serif; font-size: 14px;">Japanese scientist investigates use of acoustics to identify counterfeit coins</span></p> <p>A paper in "Forensic Science International" describes,<span style="font-style: italic;"> "Development of a simple and non-destructive examination for counterfeit coins using acoustic characteristics"</span>. The paper is by Mototsugu Suzuki from the Tokyo Criminal Investigation Laboratory. The editor has only seen the abstract of this paper at present but this appears to be an interesting technique with the possibility of identifying circulating counterfeit coins. <p>[Source: <a href="http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T6W-4R8M9D0-1&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=32b41a4e274e3f84b4055e2683585190">Science Direct</a>]</p> <p><span style="font-weight: 700; font-family: Arial, Verdana, san serif; font-size: 14px;">and briefly</span></p> <p>Reports were seen concerning counterfeit Malaysian 50 sen coins; yet more counterfeit Philippine 10 peso coins; and further reports of fake one-yuan coin being found by a Chinese bus company in Foshune in Guangdong.</p> <p>Return to <a href="#contents"> Contents</a>.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> </td></tr> <p><span style="font-weight: 700; font-family: Arial, Verdana, san serif; font-size: 16px;"><a name="collect">Collector coin</a></span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 700; font-type: Arial, Verdana, san serif; font-size: 14px;">Counterfeit NGC coin holder found</span></p> <div style="font-weight: 400; font-family: Arial, Verdana, san serif;font-size: 14px;"> <p>NGC, one of the USA's leading coin graders, has <a href="http://www.ngccoin.com/news/viewarticle.aspx?IDArticle=954">confirmed</a> that a counterfeit replica of its holder has been identified. NGC state, <span style="font-style:italic;">"At first appearance, the holder resembles the NGC holder and its respective brand marks."</span> They add that, <span style="font-style:italic;">"The holder has been seen housing counterfeit dollar or foreign crown size coins."</span> To allay collectors worst fears they state that, <span style="font-style:italic;">"Upon inspection, variations in the holder, label and hologram make them easily discernible from authentic NGC-certified coins."</span> <p>[Source: NGC, Numismatic Guaranty Corporation, 7th January 2008]</p> <p><span style="font-weight: 700; font-family: Arial, Verdana, san serif; font-size: 14px;"></span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 700; font-type: Arial, Verdana, san serif; font-size: 14px;">Roman coins used as source of ancient metal by forger</span></p> <p>News of an unusual inversion of events usually reported here were to be found in reports of a recent British court case. A fine art and antiquity forger and his parents were convicted of manufacturing and selling fake antiquities and paintings to a number of museums. Found in their home was a store of Roman coins and a melting furnace. It was stated that the coins were used to produce antiquities of the correct metal type. This is certainly an illustration that metal analysis is not conclusive proof in examining doubtful coins. </p> <p>[Source: <a href="http://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/news/s/1024785_humble_council_house_was_home_to_10m_swindle">Manchest Evening News</a>, <a href="http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/articles/news/news.html?in_article_id=494536&in_page_id=1770">The Daily Mail</a> ]</p> <p>Return to <a href="#contents"> Contents</a>.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: 700; font-family: Arial, Verdana, san serif; font-size: 14px;">The nineteenth century use of gold plated platinum in counterfeit coins</span></p> <table width=97% border="0" cellpadding="10" style="text-align:justify"> <tr><td width=40%> <img src="images/ptcftsovobv.jpg" width=309 height=300 align=center alt="The reverse of a gold plated platinum counterfeit of a 1872 sovereign"> <div style="font-weight: 400; font-type: Arial, Verdana, san serif; font-size: 12px;"><p>The obverse of a gold plated platinum sovereign, dated 1872. This photograph reproduced with permission from "World Numismatic Auctions" at <a href="http://www.wnauctions.com">www.wnauctions.com</a> </p> <img src="images/ptcftsovrev.jpg" width=300 height=300 align=center alt="The reverse of a gold plated platinum counterfeit of a 1872 sovereign"> <div style="font-weight: 400; font-type: Arial, Verdana, san serif; font-size: 12px;"><p>The reverse of a gold plated platinum sovereign, dated 1872. This photograph reproduced with permission from "World Numismatic Auctions" at <a href="http://www.wnauctions.com">www.wnauctions.com</a> </p> </td><td> <p>A correctly attributed counterfeit gold plated platinum sovereign, dated 1872, appeared in the World Numismatic Auctions December 2007 sale. This reminded the editor of a number of similar contemporary counterfeits of coins from several European countries with dates usually varying from the 1850's to the 1870's. These counterfeits were made from platinum, which was cheap at the time, and gold plated. It is presumed that the platinum originated in South America and was initially imported into Spain. Circumstantial evidence points to the counterfeiting taking place in Barcelona or the surrounding region, see Dyer below.</p> <p>Counterfeits from this period are known of British, French and Spanish coins. G.P.Dyer in the "Bulletin on Counterfeits" published an informative paper on the British coins in 1979. It has not been possible to locate a comparable examination of the French and Spanish counterfeits. However the French website <a href="http://www.infonumis.info/autres_monnaies/fausse/liste.htm">Infonumis</a> does provided photographs of a large number of such counterfeits of 10 and 20 Francs coins. A number of these counterfeits do not show any signs of gold plating whether this is because it has worn away or was never present, is not always apparent.</p> <p>Dyer examined platinum counterfeit sovereigns of four different dates, 1861, 1862, 1870 and 1872. Similar to the World Numismatic Auctions example shown across, the three 1872 counterfeits examined all had the die number 29 on the reverse. With one exception (17.44 g/cc) the relative density of the thirteen counterfeits examined varied between 19.63 to 20.36 g/cc. This is lower than the relative density of pure platinum (21.45 g/cc) but the alloy was considered to contain alloying amounts of copper. The spectrographic analysis of one coin found 3.4 percent copper. The 91.6 percent gold alloy used in sovereigns has a relative density of about 17.5 g/cc.</p> <p>Dyer concluded that the coins were struck probably by coin dies, <span style="font-style:italic;">"..produced from a pair of matrices manufactured by forcing a genuine coin into a piece of hot steel." </span> The dates on these counterfeits were often crude suggesting the numerals were produced by hand on the obverse dies.</p> <p>There is no evidence to suggest this type of counterfeit was made after about 1880. This is believed to be due to the rising price of platinum making its use in such counterfeits uneconomic.</p> <p>[Sources: World Numismatic Auctions; "Counterfeit Sovereigns in Platinum" G.P.Dyer, Bulletin on Counterfeits, Vol. 4, N0. 2/3, Summer/Autumn 1979; Infonumis]</p> </td></tr> </table> <p>Return to <a href="#contents"> Contents</a>.</p> </td><td width=1px></td><td></td> </tr> <tr><td colspan=3> <p><span style="font-weight:700; font-size: 18px"><a name="on-line">ON-LINE RESOURCES</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 700; font-size: 16px">Sites dealing with USA silver dollars </span></p> <div style="font-weight: 400; font-family: Arial, Verdana, san serif; font-size: 14px;"> <p><a href="http://reviews.ebay.com/Fake-U-S-Trade-dollars_W0QQugidZ10000000000049445">In an eBay</a> guide, "fnreek915" states that,<span style="font-style: italic"> "90% of all U.S. Trade dollars on Ebay are fake. 99% of foreign sales are fake"</span>. Given the size of this problem it is surprising that there are so few Internet sites offering help to the collector. Initially the collector needs to know as much about the genuine coins as possible. Wikipedia offers a reasonable summary of the history of the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dollar_%28United_States_coin%29">dollar</a> coin with more details on issue numbers at <a href="http://coinfacts.com/">Coin Facts</a>. Neither of these sites offers a comprehensive group of images of dollar coins but the Coin Facts site offers a better range. Details of recent auction sales of dollar coins can be found at <a href="http://www.coinarchives.com/">CoinArchive.com</a>. Even when the search terms are carefully framed the site does produced numerous spurious hits but it does show good images of real coins, giving the browser a much better feel for the market.</p> <p>The collector needing advice on counterfeits probably needs two types of help. Firstly for the poor to medium quality counterfeit, advice on a systematic method of checking a coin is required. Secondly for the better quality counterfeits, a record of counterfeit images and any diagnostic information is required. In an <a href="http://coins.about.com/od/goldrarecoininvesting/f/fake_coin_fraud.htm">About.com</a> article on fake silver eagle coins Susan Headley describes a systematic method that can be used for examining all coins. Using this approach should eliminate buying most Chinese fake dollars. In a wide-ranging <a href="http://mywebpages.comcast.net/reidgold/draped_busts/chinese.html">essay</a> on Chinese silver dollar counterfeiting Reid Goldsborough displays images of six examples of probably Chinese made counterfeit dollars. The editor's general advice is do not buy any USA dollar coins from Chinese or other Asian sources.</p> <p>In recent times there has been a significant volume of published material on USA counterfeit coins including the higher quality counterfeit dollars. This includes books [e.g. Hancock and Spanbauer] and magazine and journal articles [e.g. Brian Silliman in the "Numismatist" and Michael Fahey in "Coin World"]. Unfortunately the majority of this material is not freely available on the Internet. One exception is the recent loading of the examples from the "Bulletin on Counterfeits" [1976 to 1999] on to the <a href="http://www.forgerynetwork.com/default.aspx">ForgeryNetwork</a>. One "Coin World" article available free on the Internet is an informative general news <a href="http://www.coinworld.com/news/102102/news-3.asp">article</a> about the occurrence of counterfeit Trade dollars at a 2002 Hong Kong coin show. This contains a few reasonable images.</p> <p>Perhaps the best site for looking at counterfeits of the full range of dollar coins is <a href="http://www.silver-coins.org/counterfeit_dollars.html">silver-coins.org</a>. The site shows examples of genuine and counterfeit dollar coins from the Draped Bust coins to the silver eagles including the well-known 1906 counterfeit silver eagle, there was no 1906 genuine coin. The site includes the coin specifications, including the number of mills or reeds on the edge, but usually only one example of a counterfeit per date. The best site examining one type of silver dollar is Reid Goldsborough's <a href="http://mywebpages.comcast.net/reidgold/draped_busts/page_7.html"> Draped Bust fake dollars</a>. This includes photographs [obverse and reverse] of twenty counterfeits and a very informative text. Finally Numismaster has published an interesting <a href="http://www.numismaster.com/ta/numis/Article.jsp?ad=article&ArticleId=2385">article</a> by F. Michael Fazzari about the examination of two counterfeit Trade dollars. </p> <p></p> [Sources: as indicated in the main text.] </div> </td><td width=1px></td><td> <div style="font-weight: 400; font-family: Arial, Verdana, san serif;font-size: 14px;"> <p> </p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div></td></tr> </table> <div style="font-weight: 400; font-family: Arial, Verdana, san serif;font-size: 14px;"> <p>Return to <a href="#contents"> Contents</a>.</p> </div> <p><span style="font-weight: 700; font-size: 16px"> </span></p> <div style="font-weight: 400; font-family: Arial, Verdana, san serif; font-size: 14px;"> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p> <span style="font-weight:700; font-size: 18px"><a name="inprint">IN PRINT</a></span></p> <p> <span style="font-weight:700; font-size: 14px">A False Merchant Countermark, Forgery or Fake? Eric C. Hodge, Spink Numismatic Circular, October 2007, Vol. CXV No.5, pp254-255</span></p> <div style="font-weight: 400; font-family: Arial, Verdana, san serif;font-size: 14px;"> <p>This article concerns a recently occurring merchant countermarked dollar. In consultation with two other experts the author considered it a genuine Brazilian 960 reis, dated 1818, with a false, 'A.King * Greenock' around '4/6', countermark. The coin is illustrated with a number of comparison pieces and the small discrepancies in the countermark listed. The author emphasised the value of provenance when comparing countermarks. The query, "Forgery or Fake?" concerns the question whether this countermark was produce "contemporary", while these countermarked dollars were circulating or "modern", produced subsequently to deceive the collector. The author tends towards the modern explanation.</p> <p> <span style="font-weight:700; font-size: 14px">"Coin Forgeries and Replicas 2006", Ilya Prokopov, pub. by Provias, Sofia, 2007, price $15</span></p> <p>[Paperback, pp 80 including photographs of over 200 coins]</p> <table width=97% border="0" cellpadding="10" style="text-align:justify"><tr><td width=40%> <img src="images/prokopov06.jpg" width=298 height=445 align=center alt="Coin Forgeries and Replicas 2006"> <div style="font-weight: 400; font-type: Arial, Verdana, san serif; font-size: 12px;"><p>"Coin Forgeries and Replicas 2006" by Ilya Prokopov</p> </td><td> <p>This volume is the fifth in this series by Ilya Prokopov and his collaborators. This volume seems the least systematic of the series. It bundles together a catalogue of ancient counterfeits from a variety of sources. Catalogued are:<br /> <br />8 individual counterfeit Greek pieces some attributed to well known counterfeit "studios"; <br />3 Greek "pseudo hoards", 33 counterfeits; <br />1 Celtic imitation; <br />27 individual counterfeit Roman pieces; <br />2 counterfeit Byzantium pieces; <br />20 counterfeit coin like objects and five other objects from the previously undocumented "Mandev Studio"; <br />110 counterfeits from a pseudo hoard of Terabols of Histiaea on Euboea Island.</p> <p>At least one photograph and often an enlargement illustrate each entry. There seems to be an attempt to catalogue with each entry, the counterfeit material, diameter, weight, die axis, and describe the appearance and the possible production route. However probably less than twenty percent of the entries have all these documented and with the pseudo hoard of terabols, each entry consists purely of photographs.</p> <p>Unfortunately the standard of English used in the book is very poor especially when technical coin terms are required. In one section of the introduction cut and cutting seemed to be used to indicate a counterfeit produced by striking but later the term striking is used. This left this reviewer thoroughly confused. This confusion was not assisted by the repetition of one passage in this introduction. Perhaps a flavour is given by the following: <span style="font-style: italic">"The third method of making counterfeits that is extremely jeopardizing and was not actively practiced in the past is the one using galvanoplasty."</span> There is no definition of <span style="font-style: italic">"galvanoplasty"</span> but the reviewer suspects it may mean electroforming or electrotyping, types of electroplating.</p> <p>Despite the many faults in this series of books it is one of the only sources of information about current ancient coin counterfeits. The whole series is now in need of a good index based on chronological order. These books are a required source of reference for those buying ancient coins especially on the Internet. However one must not fall into the trap that if a coin is not catalogued in this series it must be genuine. Bulgaria is a major source of counterfeit ancient coins but not the only one.</p> </td></tr></table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p> <span style="font-weight:700; font-size: 14px"><a name="hoxne">"The Late Roman Gold and Silver Coins from the Hoxne Treasure", P.S.W.Guest, The British Museum Press, 2005, price 60, hardback pp160 plus 33 pages of plates including 22 pages of plates with actual size coin photographs.</a> </span></p> <p>[A nine-page PDF summary of this book has been written by Peter Guest and can be found at:<br /> <a href="http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/hisar/resources/HoxneSummary.pdf"> http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/hisar/resources/HoxneSummary.pdf</a>]</p> <table width=97% border="0" cellpadding="10" style="text-align:justify"><tr><td width=40%> <img src="images/hoxnetreasure.jpg" width=300 height=300 align=center alt="The Late Roman Gold and Silver Coins from the Hoxne Treasure"> <div style="font-weight: 400; font-type: Arial, Verdana, san serif; font-size: 12px;"> <p>The Late Roman Gold and Silver Coins from the Hoxne <br />Treasure by Peter Guest, Lecturer in Roman Archaeology<br /> at Cardiff University</p> </td><td> <p>This review concentrates on Chapter 6, "Imitation <span style="font-style: italic">Siliquae</span> from the Hoxne Treasure", and a section of Appendix 1, which describes the scientific examination, carried out by Michael Cowell, on a number of the imitation siliquae.</p> <p>Eric Lawes discovered the Hoxne Treasure in a Suffolk field in 1992 whilst he was looking for a lost hammer. It consists of a hoard of gold jewellery, silver tableware and late Roman gold and silver coin. It was subsequently classified as "Treasure", valued at 1.8 million pounds sterling and acquired by the British Museum. This book is a catalogue of the over 15,000 coins found with a through discussion of a number of aspects of late Roman Britain. Perhaps most importantly for numismatists is the development of a chronology of the silver siliquae reverse sides between 355 and 408 A.D. A further volume is planned covering the gold jewellery and the silver tableware.</p> <p>The 15,234 coins found consisted of 580 gold solidi, 60 silver light miliarenses, 14,565 silver siliquae, 5 silver half-siliquae and 24 bronze coins. The coins date from the late forth century A.D. to the early fifth century A.D. (mainly from 364 to 408). Peter Guest states that the treasure was, <span style="font-style: italic">"by far the largest collection of coins from this period of British history and one of the largest coin hoards known from Roman Britain".</span> The dates of the coins indicate the hoard was deposited sometime after 408. Guest states that, <span style="font-style: italic">"410 marks the defeat of Constantine III and</span> (the) <span style="font-style: italic">probable final detachment of Britain from the Roman Empire."</span> </p> </td></tr></table> <p>The 14,136 official siliquae were described by Guest as, <span style="font-style: italic"> "by far the largest collection of this silver denomination from the late Roman world"</span>. 98 percent of these silliquae had been clipped in antiquity. There were also 428 irregular imitation siliquae, that is coins not produced at the imperial mints. Thus 2.94 percent of the siliquae found were imitations. No imitations were found amongst the other coin denominations. Guest concludes that, <span style="font-style: italic">"..clipping took place in Britain in order to provide a source of silver to produce the provincial imitations."</span> These imitations were, <span style="font-style: italic">"struck from locally-made dies...Some copies can be identified by bungled legends or incorrect combinations of obverse and reverse dies, although the majority are distinguishable only on stylistic grounds."</span> These provincial imitations were considered to be produced, <span style="font-style: italic">"episodically as the need arose, rather than continuously as a regular supply."</span> It, <span style="font-style: italic"> "suggests that these copies were intended to circulate alongside official coins rather than as forgeries." </span></p> <p>Guest also noted <span style="font-style: italic">"A handful of siliquae were produced as genuine forgeries. These contained far less silver than official coins."</span> There were two types of these counterfeits present. Included in the hoard were <span style="font-style: italic">"two complete clich&#233 forgeries"</span> and four single foil sides presumably originally from other clich&#233 counterfeits. Guest writes that, <span style="font-style: italic">"Boon notes</span> [see below] <span style="font-style: italic"> no clich&#233 are recorded for the siliqua denomination. As there are a number in the Hoxne Treasure it is clear this denomination was regularly forged in this way."</span> Also present in the Treasure were <span style="font-style: italic">"foil-plated copper core forgeries"</span>. Unfortunately the total number of this type found was not obvious to the reviewer in his reading of the book.</p> <p>Two incomplete clich&#233 siliquae and three, plated copper-core siliquae were examined and analysed as part of the scientific examination of the Treasure. Clich&#233 counterfeits have a simple production process. In the medieval period it is considered that a genuine coin was used to impress a design onto silver foil. Silver foils with obverse and reverse impressions were then <span style="font-style: italic">"soldered together with tin or lead or an alloy of the two."</span> The procedure is considered to have been <span style="font-style: italic">"particularly suitable for the manufacture of small thin coins"</span>. The three <span style="font-style: italic">"foil-plated copper-core forgeries"</span> were shown to have a copper core with a approximately 200 micron thick silver plate on either side. The plate was secured to the core by a silver/copper 10 micron eutectic layer probably produced by self-soldering. The silver plated copper-core blank would have been struck between dies to transfer the design. The silver used on both types of counterfeit was compatible with the use of clippings from genuine siliquae.</p> <p>The Hoxne Treasure presented the opportunity to gain significant new evidence on the history and coinage of Britain and the late Roman Empire. Peter Guest and his collaborators have accepted this challenge and produced a readable but scholarly work. Any serious student or collector of silver siliquae of this period needs to read the chapter on the development of a reverse chronology. The book provides very useful information on the scale and type of counterfeiting during this period. The price will probably prevent it finding its way onto many personal bookshelves but all good historic or numismatic sections in university and public libraries should possess a copy. The reviewer loaned his review copy from the British Library on an interlibrary loan. The reviewer noticed a few small pieces of evidence missing [what was the thickness of the clich&#233 foils?] and probably people more expert in this field would notice other omissions but this is a commendable effort and Peter Guest and his collaborators should be congratulated.</p> <p>Note: Boon, G. "Counterfeit coins in Roman Britain", pp 102-88, in "Coins and the Archaeologist" edited by Casey, P.J. and Reece, R., 2nd edition, 1988, London.</p> <p>Return to <a href="#contents"> Contents</a>.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </table> <p><span style="font-weight: 700; font-size:16px;"><a name="russia1"> Counterfeit Russian Gold Coins continued</a></span></p> <div style="font-weight: 400; font-family: Arial, Verdana, san serif; font-size: 14px;"> <table border="1" cellpadding="10" style="text-align: center"> <tr> <th style"=font-weight:bold">Denomination</th> <th style"=font-weight:bold">Date</th> <th style"=font-weight:bold">Russian Numismatic Society</th> <th style"=font-weight:bold">Bulletin on Counterfeits</th> <th style"=font-weight:bold">Counterfeit Coin Bulletin</th> </tr> <tr><td>Ducat</td> <td>1706 <br />1711</td> <td>Journal, Summer 2006</td> <td>-</td> <td>-</td></tr> <tr><td>Ducat</td> <td>1714</td> <td>Newsletter, Fall 2006</td> <td>-</td> <td>-</td></tr> <tr><td>Ducat</td> <td>1730</td> <td>Newsletter, Spring 2004</td> <td>-</td> <td>-</td></tr> <tr><td>Ducat</td> <td>1749</td> <td>Journal, Winter 2006-7</td> <td>-</td> <td>-</td></tr> <tr><td>Ducat</td> <td>1753</td> <td>-</td> <td>Vol. 4, No. 4, p.109 <br />[Not illustrated]</td> <td>-</td></tr> <tr><td>Ducat</td> <td>1757</td> <td>Journal, Summer 2004</td> <td>-</td> <td>-</td></tr> <tr><td>Ducat</td> <td>1797</td> <td>Newsletter, Spring 2007</td> <td>-</td> <td>April 2000</td></tr> <tr><td>37&frac12; Roubles</td> <td>1902</td> <td>-</td> <td>Vol.1, No.1, p.21; <br />Vol.6, No.s 1/2, p.30</td> <td>-</td></tr> <tr><td>25 Roubles</td> <td>1896</td> <td>-</td> <td>Vol.1, No.1, p.22; <br />Vol.4, No.4, p.109 <br />[Not illustrated]</td> <td>-</td></tr> <tr><td>15 Roubles</td> <td>1897</td> <td>-</td> <td>Vol.1, No.1, p.20; <br />Vol.4, No.4, p.109 <br />[Not illustrated]</td> <td>-</td></tr> <tr><td>10 Roubles</td> <td>1756</td> <td>-</td> <td>Vol.4, No.4, p.109 <br />[Not illustrated]</td> <td>-</td></tr> <tr><td>10 Roubles</td> <td>1773</td> <td>-</td> <td>Vol.1, No.2, p.51; <br />Vol.4, No.4, p.109 <br />[Not illustrated]</td> <td>-</td></tr> <tr><td>10 Roubles</td> <td>1895</td> <td>Newsletter, Fall 2004</td> <td>-</td> <td>-</td></tr> <tr><td>7&frac12; Roubles</td> <td>1897</td> <td>-</td> <td>Vol.4, No.4, p.109 <br />[Not illustrated]</td> <td>-</td></tr> <tr><td>5 Roubles</td> <td>1769</td> <td>Journal, Winter 2006-7</td> <td>-</td> <td>-</td></tr> <tr><td>5 Roubles</td> <td>1783</td> <td>-</td> <td>Vol.2, No.1, p.26</td> <td>-</td></tr> <tr><td>5 Roubles</td> <td>1800</td> <td>Newsletter, Fall 2004</td> <td>-</td> <td>-</td></tr> <tr><td>5 Roubles</td> <td>1801</td> <td>Journal, Winter 2006-7</td> <td>-</td> <td>-</td></tr> <tr><td>5 Roubles</td> <td>1902</td> <td>-</td> <td>Vol.1, No.1, p.28 <br />[Not illustrated]</td> <td>-</td></tr> <tr><td>2 Roubles</td> <td>1756</td> <td>Journal, Winter 2005-6</td> <td>Vol.4, No.4, p.109 <br />[Not illustrated]</td> <td>-</td></tr> <tr><td>5 Roubles</td> <td>1785</td> <td>Journal, Winter 2005-6</td> <td>-</td> <td>-</td></tr> <tr><td>1 Roubles</td> <td>1756</td> <td>Journal, Winter 2005-6</td> <td>-</td> <td>-</td></tr> <tr><td>50 Kopecks (Poltina)</td> <td>1756</td> <td>Journal, Winter 2005-6</td> <td>Vol.3, No.2, p.41 <br />[Not illustrated]</td> <td>-</td></tr> <tr><td>&frac12; Rouble</td> <td>1777</td> <td>-</td> <td>Vol.3, No.2, p.41 <br />[Not illustrated]</td> <td>-</td></tr> <tr><td>&frac12; Rouble</td> <td>1778</td> <td>-</td> <td>Vol.3, No.2, p.41 <br />[Not illustrated] <br />Vol.4, No.1, p.14-15</td> <td>-</td></tr> <tr><td>10 Kopecs</td> <td>1610 Vladislav</td> <td>Newsletter, Spring 2005</td> <td>-</td> <td>-</td></tr> </table> <div style="font-size:12px"> <p>Copyright Robert Matthews 2006</p> <p>Click the links below to return to the top, to go to the Cumulative Index of the<span style="font-style:italic"> Counterfeit Coin Newsletter,</span> to go to Coin Information or to go to my Home page.</p> <p><a href="#top">Top</a></p> <p style="font-style:italic"><a href="CCNindex.html">Counterfeit Coin Newsletter Cumulative Index</a></p> <p><a href="coininfo.html">Coin Information</a></p> <p><a href="index.html">Home</a></p> </div> </body> </html>