George III References
The references
Proof & pattern gold

In his pioneering work, Hawkins listed the English milled gold coins produced until 1849. This includes information on circulation, pattern and proof coins. He quotes information from the Royal Mint on the subscribers to the 1820 pattern 5 coins.

Crowther attempted to give a price guide for English pattern coins up to 1886. He quotes sales information that is a useful guide for the first three quarters of the nineteenth century.


Kenyon covers a large period of time from the thirteenth century but his section on George III contains very little detail.

Linecar is a book based on considerable research and is an example to all numismatists. It does not attempt to cover most gold coins but where it does cover gold coins, it is excellent.


Craig is a very comprehensive account of the Royal Mint's history including engravers and production techniques.

Marsh 1 and 2 are the standard reference books on circulation sovereigns and half- sovereigns. They do not mention proof and pattern coins but describes all other varieties known at the time of publishing. Not all the varieties described are illustrated.


Finally Wilson and Rasmussen have listed all known gold pattern and proof coins between 1547 and 1968. This is very comprehensive but left me wanting to know more detail.

Craig:    "The Mint: A History of the London Mint from A.D. 287 to 1948" by Sir John Craig, published by Cambridge University Press 1953

Crowther:    "A Guide to English Pattern Coins in Gold, Silver, Copper and Pewter" by The Rev. G.F. Crowther, published by L. Upcott Gill (1886?)

Cullimore    "Sovereigns of the British Empire" by Captain J.J. Cullimore Allen, published by Spink & Son Ltd., London, 1965

Duveen    "The History of the Gold Sovereign" by Sir Geoffrey Duveen and H.G.Stride, published by Oxford University Press 1962

ESC:    "English Silver Coinage since 1649" by P. Alan Rayner, 5th edition published by Seaby 1992

Fearon    "The Sovereign" by Daniel Fearon, published by Hillden Publications 2001

Grueber:    "Handbook of the Coins of Great Britain and Ireland in The British Museum" by Herbert A. Grueber , reprinted with revisions 1970 by Spink and Son, London, first published 1899.

Hawkins:    "Gold Coins of England" by Edward Hawkins, in the journal Numismatic Chronicle, 1850-51 Volume XIII.

Hocking:    "Catalogue of the Coins, Tokens, Medals, Dies and Seals in the Museum of the Royal Mint", Two volumes, London, 1906.

Kenyon:    "The Gold Coins of England" by R.L. Kenyon, reproduced with addendum 1969 by Firecrest Publishing Ltd., Bath, original edition 1884.

Linecar:    "English proof and pattern crown-size pieces 1658 1960" by Howard W.A. Linecar and Alex. G. Stone, published by Spink & Son 1968

Newman:    Private communications from E.G.V. Newman.

Marsh 1:    "The Gold Sovereign" by Michael Marsh, 2nd edition 1999

Marsh 2:    "The Gold Half Sovereign" by Michael Marsh, 2nd edition 2004

Royal Mint:    Work carried out during 1972 2002 at the Royal Mint by or for Robert Matthews.

Schneider:    "Sylloge of Coins of the British Isles No. 57 The Herbert Schneider Collection Volume 2 English Gold Coins 1603 20th Century" by Peter Woodhead, published by Spink & Son 2002

Selig:    "The Herman Selig Collection Part II, Coins of George III", Spink Auction 131, London, Tuesday, 2 March 1999

Slaney:    "The Slaney Collection of English Coins, London, Thursday 15th May 2003", Spink auction catalogue, published 27/2/03.

Spink    "Coins of England and the United Kingdom", published by Spink, 40th edition, 2005

Wilson:    "English Pattern Trial and Proof Coins in Gold, 1547 - 1968" by Alex Wilson and Mark Rasmussen, published by Alexander Publishing 2000

Robert Matthews 2006